Canadian Jewish Congress National Archives (PC1 3 77N)

Fascist Meeting, Montreal, Quebec, ca. 1938.

Adrien Arcand, and the fascist organization he started, achieved brief popularity in Quebec during the 1930s. During the war, however, Arcand's movement was quickly discredited.

Fascist governments and movements differed importantly in philosophy and leadership style. However, they all targeted popular scapegoats -- communists and Jews in particular -- for national and international problems.

They also all offered strong leaders and simple solutions: centralized states, long-range economic planning, and a controlled marketplace. And, once in power, they all undermined the kind of rights and freedoms that Western democracies took for granted.

As early as 1922, Benito Mussolini's Fascist government came to power in Italy. The Great Depression then helped bring other fascist dictators to power:
  • Antonio de Oliveira in Portugal in 1932;
  • Adolf Hitler in Germany in 1933;
  • Francisco Franco in Spain in 1939;
  • and still others -- often aided by Mussolini and Hitler -- in other eastern and south-eastern European states.

Britain, the United States, and Canada also had notable fascist movements.

The Fortyniner, No. 22, 1936.

"Menacing Cloud over Europe."

Benito Mussolini rose to power in part because of his promise to make Italy into a great imperial power. To achieve this objective, however, Italy would have to conquer territories belonging to other European nations. Mussolini is depicted here casting a menacing glance in the direction of a British soldier and the empire he defends.

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