The Americans planned to launch three offensives into Canada in the summer of 1813. An army of 3,500 reoccupied Fort Detroit and then crossed the river. This force, commanded by Major-General William Henry Harrison, would advance into Upper Canada from the west. A second American army of 4,000 would cross the Niagara River and move toward York (Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada. Major-General Henry Dearborn, aided by his adjutant-general, Colonel Winfield Scott, led the force. Brigadier-General Wade Hampton would lead a force up the Richelieu River and then take Montreal.

On 27 May, Colonel Scott, who had assumed command when Major-General Dearborn fell ill, led his troops into Upper Canada. The British commander, Brigadier-General John Vincent, had only 700 troops to counter the American force. He retreated toward Burlington Heights (near present-day Hamilton, Ontario). The Americans leisurely advanced and encamped at Stoney Creek on the evening of 5 June 1813.

That night, Brigadier-General Vincent decided upon a daring plan. He assembled the 49th Regiment for a night attack on the American camp. Despite being heavily outnumbered, Vincent and his men attacked the Americans and scattered their forces. The darkness added to the confusion. By daybreak on 6 June 1813, hundreds of American soldiers were streaming back toward the Niagara River, pursued by a handful of British soldiers. This humiliating defeat ended American operations along the Niagara frontier.


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