Following the Anglo-French war in Europe (1626-1629), the English returned Quebec to France in 1632. After the reintroduction of French rule, Samuel de Champlain immediately reconstructed the wooden fortifications at Quebec. In addition, he built a wooden stockade further upriver at Trois-Rivières to protect the fur-trade route from Huron territory to Quebec. In 1634, a fur-trading post was established at Trois-Rivières.
In 1637, Champlain's successor as governor, Chevalier de Montagny, refortified Quebec with stone ramparts. He also established a citizen defence force composed of male colonists. They were expected to maintain their musketry skills and aid in the defence of the settlement when required. The colonists on the force were responsible for supplying their own weapons and ammunition.