Fascist governments and movements differed importantly in philosophy and leadership style. However, they all targeted popular scapegoats -- communists and Jews in particular -- for national and international problems.
They also all offered strong leaders and simple solutions: centralized states, long-range economic planning, and a controlled marketplace. And, once in power, they all undermined the kind of rights and freedoms that Western democracies took for granted.As early as 1922, Benito Mussolini's Fascist government came to power in Italy. The Great Depression then helped bring other fascist dictators to power:
- Antonio de Oliveira in Portugal in 1932;
- Adolf Hitler in Germany in 1933;
- Francisco Franco in Spain in 1939;
- and still others -- often aided by Mussolini and Hitler -- in other eastern and south-eastern European states.
Britain, the United States, and Canada also had notable fascist movements.