By the summer of 1760, the French and Canadian forces in Montreal faced a hopeless situation. Brigadier-General James Murray advanced on Montreal from Quebec. At the same time, General Amherst led another force up the St. Lawrence from Fort Oswego on the south shore of Lake Ontario. A third army, commanded by Colonel William Haviland, marched up the Richelieu River from Fort William Henry in New York. By the end of August, 17,000 British troops were converging on Montreal.
The commander of the French and Canadian forces, François Gaston, Duc de Lévis, had only 2,400 French regulars and Canadian Troupes de la Marine left to defend Montreal. Most of the militia had returned home to protect their farms. Despite the objections of Lévis, who wanted to continue fighting, Governor Vaudrueil surrendered New France to the British on 9 September 1760.
The Treaty of Paris, signed by British and French officials on 10 February 1763, confirmed British possession of New France. France retained two islands off the coast of Newfoundland, St. Pierre, and Miquelon, as well as islands in the Caribbean.