In 1774, the British government passed the Quebec Act. The Act was a response to recommendations made by governors Major-General James Murray and his successor Colonel Sir Guy Carleton. A primary goal of the Quebec Act was the reconciliation of the French and English in the colony. But it was also intended to establish cordial relations with the First Nations to the west of British North America.
The land west of the Appalachians was declared sovereign territory of the First Nations, and settlement of the area was forbidden. This enraged the American colonists, who assumed they could move into the west after the fall of New France. The British, however, placed great value on alliances with the First Nations. The highly effective role played by Native forces in the French defence of Canada had made a lasting impression.
The American colonists, ignoring the fact that the conquest of Canada had been essentially a British victory, regarded the west as the spoils of war. The British government had committed considerable financial and military resources to the conquest of Canada. As a result, they levied new taxes on the American colonies to pay for their defence from 1756 to 1763. While the Americans were eager to claim lands won by British troops, they were not prepared to share the costs of the victory. The Quebec Act played a significant role in increasing American discontent with British rule. A year later, Canada would once again face the threat of invasion.